Even if the generality problem can be solved, another problem remains for externalism. So, two people might hold the same true belief, but for different reasons, so that one of them is justified and the other is unjustified.
Regardless of whether information is in people's heads, in physical or digital documents, or in the form of factual data, it can be linked.
But the second occurrence of "identical" refers to numerical identity. In the natural sciencesa primary source could be defined as a report of original findings or ideas.
Who is the intended audience. Again, Hume thinks not, since the above argument, and all arguments like it, contain an unsupported premise, namely the second premise, which might be called the Principle of the Uniformity of Nature PUN.
This relates something eg. The following questions are asked about primary sources: In the humanitiesa primary source could be defined as something that was created either during the time period being studied or afterward by individuals reflecting on their involvement in the events of that time.
Suppose that the clock on campus which keeps accurate time and is well maintained stopped working at Understanding where a document comes from helps historians to understand what the document reveals about the history of a place or people.
This is a common problem in classical studieswhere sometimes only a summary of a book or letter has survived. So, an internalist who finds foundationalism to be problematic might deny this assumption, maintaining instead that justification is the result of a holistic relationship among beliefs.
My belief is true, of course, since the time is indeed Step 2 Apply the "bias rule," which reminds historians that all historical documents contain some sort of bias, depending on their source. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. The Geography and Map Division holds multiple aerial views and maps of the World Trade Center, as well as thermal imagery showing underground fires that burned for weeks.
After all, if I had walked past the clock a bit earlier or a bit later, I would have ended up with a false belief rather than a true one. Knowledge can also be transmitted from one individual to another via testimony; that is, my justification for a particular belief could amount to the fact that some trusted source has told me that it is true.
However, inEdmund Gettier published a short but widely influential article which has shaped much subsequent work in epistemology. Like any philosophical stance, skepticism must be supported by an argument.
Written sources may be divided into three types. Primary sources, whether accurate or not, offer new input into historical questions and most modern history revolves around heavy use of archives and special collections for the purpose of finding useful primary sources.
This point is discussed at greater length in section 2b below. My car has always persisted in the past.
As we try to acquire knowledge, then, we are trying to increase our stock of true beliefs while simultaneously minimizing our false beliefs.
We have a situation where an extensive investigation was conducted, but then the Bush [administration] decided for whatever purposes to excise 28 pages from the report. The Digital Public Library of America searches across the digitized primary source collections of many libraries, archives, and museums.
The Extent of Human Knowledge a. Many County Record Offices will supply digital copies of documents. The computer produces what seem to be genuine sense experiences, and also responds to your brain's output to make it seem that you are able to move about in your environment as you did when your brain was still in your body.
As a result, he has many true beliefs about the temperature, but he does not know why he has them or what their source is. The requirement that knowledge involve justification does not necessarily mean that knowledge requires absolute certainty, however. And my belief is justified, as I have no reason to doubt that the clock is working, and I cannot be blamed for basing beliefs about the time on what the clock says.
Note that, even if I didn't actively form the belief that the clock is currently working properly, it seems to be implicit in my reasoning, and the fact that it is false is surely relevant to the problem. This argument, however, is circular; its second premise is PUN itself.
A coherentist, then, sees justification as a relation of mutual support among many beliefs, rather than a series of asymmetrical beliefs. Now you can evaluate the source as historical evidence. Document Analysis Worksheets. Document analysis is the first step in working with primary sources.
Teach your students to think through primary source documents for contextual understanding and to extract information to make informed judgments. A publication of recent and historical energy statistics.
This publication includes statistics on total energy production, consumption, and trade; energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international petroleum; carbon dioxide emissions; and data unit conversion values.
When you analyze a primary source, you are undertaking the most important job of the historian.
There is no better way to understand events in the past than by examining the sources--whether journals, newspaper articles, letters, court case records, novels, artworks, music or autobiographies--that people from that period left behind.
A dense collection of declassified primary sources on the 9/11 attacks from the National Security Archives. This site is especialy useful for research on government policy. The first volume in the series seems to be the most directly useful and relevant. The Midterm Elections are fast approaching.
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